Sometimes, "shepherd" refers to God. For example,
He blessed Joseph, and said, "The God before whom my ancestors Abraham and Isaac walked, the God who has been my shepherd all my life to this day (Genesis 48:15).Sometimes, "shepherd" refers to an employee of God:
Joseph is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough by a spring; his branches run over the wall. The archers fiercely attacked him; they shot at him and pressed him hard. Yet his bow remained taut, and his arms were made agile by the hands of the mighty one of Jacob, by the name of the shepherd, the rock of Israel, by the God of your father, who will help you, by the Almighty who will bless you with blessings of heaven above. Blessings of the deep that lies beneath, blessings of the breasts and of the womb (Genesis 49:22-25).Other references include Genesis 29:9; Numbers 27:17; 1 Samuel 17:15; Isaiah 13:14. New Testament references include Matthew 2:6; Acts 20:28; Hebrews 13:20; and Revelation 7:17.