Jesus had been teaching and healing and upsetting (pun intended) means for access to the place of worship.
The people in charge of the temple asked him, "Who gives you the authority to do these things? When they won't admit his source of authority, he tells them he's not going to tell them.
They are able to tell that the parable he tells about the tenants killing the son of the vineyard is about them. They want to arrest him but are too afraid of the crowds to do it right then and there. Instead, they ask him what they think is a trick question, "Is paying tax to Caesar lawful?" He points out that they are doing something unlawful by carrying coins--because they bear a graven image.
Remember this the next time people call you a hypocrite because you aren't following the scriptures just the way the interpret them. But, the next time you call someone a hypocrite, think about how hard it is not to practice hypocrisy in every way everyday.